|Top Ten World Architecture||architecture- tallest thru history|
|For a more complete list, see Top Ten World Architecture|
|1||Red Pyramid of Sneferu, Egypt c. 2600 BC|
|Tallest c. 2600 BC-c. 2570 BC 105 meters (345 ft)|
The Red Pyramid, named for the light crimson hue of its exposed granite surface, is the largest of the three major pyramids located at the Dahshur necropolis, and the third largest Egyptian pyramid, after those of Khufu and Khafre at Giza. At the time of its completion, it was the tallest man-made structure in the world. It is also believed to be the world's first successful attempt at constructing a "true" smooth-sided pyramid.
The Red Pyramid was not always red. It used to be cased with white Tura limestone, but only a few of these now remain at the pyramid's base on the corner. During the Middle Ages much of white Tura limestone was taken for buildings in Cairo, revealing the reddish pinkish limestone.
|2||The Great Pyramid at Giza, Egypt c. 2570 BC|
|Tallest c. 2570 BC-c. AD 1300 146 meters (481 ft)|
The ancient Egyptians built pyramids as tombs for the pharaohs and their queens. The pharaohs were buried in pyramids of many different shapes and sizes from before the beginning of the Old Kingdom to the end of the Middle Kingdom.
There are about eighty pyramids known today from ancient Egypt. The three largest and best-preserved of these were built at Giza at the beginning of the Old Kingdom. The most well-known of these pyramids was built for the pharaoh Khufu. It is known as the 'Great Pyramid'.
|3||Lincoln Cathedral, England 1092–1311|
|Tallest c. 1300-1549 160 meters (525 ft)|
Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. Mary's Cathedral) is a historic cathedral in Lincoln in England and seat of the Diocese of Lincoln in the Church of England. It was the tallest building in the world for over 200 years (1300-1549), but the central spire collapsed in the sixteenth century and was not rebuilt. It is highly regarded by architectural scholars; the eminent Victorian writer John Ruskin declared, "I have always held... that the cathedral of Lincoln is out and out the most precious piece of architecture in the British Isles and roughly speaking worth any two other cathedrals we have."
|4||St. Olaf's Church, Tallinn, Estonia 1438–1519|
|Tallest 1549-1625 159 meters (522 ft)|
|5||St. Mary's Church, Stralsund , Germany 1384–1478|
|Tallest 1625-1647 151 meters (495 ft)|
St. Mary’s was first mentioned in 1298 as a parish church in the New Town. It attained its present form between 1384 and 1478. The imposing westwork, built from 1416, is unparalleled in the architecture of the time. Until the 1647 fire, the tower was 151 metres high. The present 104 metre polygonal spire dates from 1708. St. Mary’s Church is the youngest Gothic brick basilica in northern Europe. It has a polygonal ambulatory with radiating chapels. An unusual feature is the triple nave transept.. The interior dimensions of the building are impressive. It is 96 metres long, 41 metres wide, and the nave is 32.95 metres high. It is thus the second largest brick church in the Hanseatic area after St. Mary’s in Gdansk. Little remains of the original interior elements. The most precious possession of the church is the Baroque organ, the last work of the Lübeck organ builder Friedrich Stellwagen, created in 1659. Under good weather conditions, the viewing deck in the church tower, 366 steps high, affords a unique panorama of the city, that includes the islands of Rügen and Hiddensee, and the Baltic Sea.
|6||Strasbourg Cathedral, France 1439|
|Tallest 1647-1874 142 meters (469 ft)|
|7||St. Nikolaikirche, Hamburg, Germany 1846–1874|
|Tallest 1874-1876 147 meters (483 ft)|
The Gothic Revival St. Nikolai's Church (German: St.-Nikolai-Kirche) was formerly one of the five Lutheran Hauptkirchen (main churches) in the city of Hamburg. It is now in ruins, serving as a memorial and an important architectural landmark. When Hamburgers mention the "Nikolaikirche", it is generally to this church that is referred, and not the new Hauptkirche of St. Nikolai which is located in the Harvestehude district.
The church was the tallest building in the world from 1874 to 1876 and is still the second tallest building in Hamburg.
|8||Cathédrale Notre Dame, Rouen, France 1202–1876|
|Tallest 1876-1880 151 meters (495 ft)|
|9||Cologne Cathedral, Germany 1248–1880|
|Tallest 1880-1884 157 meters (515 ft)|
The Cologne Cathedral (German: Kölner Dom, officially Hohe Domkirche St. Peter und Maria) is the seat of the Archbishop of Cologne, under the administration of the Roman Catholic Church and is renowned as a monument of Christianity, of Gothic architecture and of the faith and perseverance of the people of the city in which it stands. It is dedicated to Saint Peter and the Blessed Virgin Mary.
The cathedral is a World Heritage Site, being one of the best-known architectural monuments in Germany, and Cologne's most famous landmark, described by UNESCO as an "exceptional work of human creative genius". Cologne Cathedral is one of the world's largest churches, being the largest Gothic church in Northern Europe. For four years, 1880-84, it was the tallest structure in the world, until the completion of the Washington Monument followed by the Eiffel Tower. It has the second-tallest church spires, only surpassed by the single spire of Ulm Cathedral, completed ten years later in 1890. Because of its enormous twin spires, it also presents the largest façade of any church in the world.
|10||Washington Monument, United States 1884|
|Tallest 1884-1889 169 meters (555 ft)|
The Washington Monument is a large, white-colored obelisk at the west end of the National Mall in Washington, D.C. It is a United States Presidential Memorial constructed for George Washington.
The monument is among the world's tallest masonry structures, standing 555 feet (169.29 m) in height and made of marble, granite, and sandstone. It was designed by Robert Mills, a prominent American architect of the 1840s. The actual construction of the monument began in 1848 but was not completed until 1884, almost 30 years after the architect's death. This hiatus in construction was because of a lack of funds and the intervention of the American Civil War. A difference in shading of the marble, visible approximately 150 feet (45 m) up, clearly delineates the initial construction from its resumption in 1876.
Its cornerstone was laid on July 4, 1848; the capstone was set on December 6, 1884, and the completed monument was dedicated on February 21, 1885. It officially opened to the public on October 9, 1888. Upon completion, it became the world's tallest structure, a title it inherited from the Cologne Cathedral and held until 1889, when the Eiffel Tower was finished in Paris, France.
The Washington Monument reflection can be seen in the aptly named Reflecting Pool, a rectangular pool extending to the west, towards the Lincoln Memorial.
|11||Eiffel Tower, Paris, France 1889|
|Tallest 1889-1930 300 meters (986 ft)|
The Industrial Revolution in Europe brought about a new trend: the use of metallurgy in construction. Because of this, the engineer's role became increasingly important, in some cases melding with or rivaling that of the architect. The Eiffel Tower is the tallest building in Paris, and reigned for 40 years as the tallest in the world.
|12||Chrysler Building, New York, United States 1928–1930|
|Tallest 1930-1931 319 meters (1,046 ft)|
The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, located on the east side of Manhattan at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue. Standing at 319 m (1,047 ft) high, it was briefly the world's tallest building before it was surpassed by the Empire State Building in 1931. However, the Chrysler Building remains the world's tallest brick building. After the destruction of the World Trade Center, it was again the second tallest building in New York City until December 2007, when the spire was raised on the 365.8 m (1,200 ft) Bank of America building, pushing the Chrysler Building into third position. In addition, the New York Times Building, which opened in 2007, is exactly tied with the Chrysler Building in height, making the two buildings tied for 3rd position. Despite the change in tallness ranking in New York, the Chrysler Building is still a classic example of Art Deco architecture and considered by many, at least among contemporary architects, to be one of the finest buildings in New York City.
|13||Empire State Building, New York, United States 1930–1931|
|Tallest 1931-1967 381 meters (1,250 ft)|
The Empire State Building has been named by the American Society of Civil Engineers as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World. The building and its street floor interior are designated landmarks of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, and confirmed by the New York City Board of Estimate. It was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1986. In 2007, it was ranked number one on the List of America's Favorite Architecture according to the AIA. The building is owned by Harold Helmsley's company and managed by its management/leasing division Helmsley-Spear.
|14||Ostankino Tower, Moscow, Russia 1963–1967|
|Tallest 1967-1975 537 meters (1,762 ft)|
|15||CN Tower, Toronto, Canada 1973–1976|
|Tallest 1975-2007 553 meters (1,815 ft)|
|16||Burj Dubai, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 2004–2008|
|Tallest 2007-present 800 meters (2,625 ft)|
Burj Dubai (Arabic: برج دبي "Dubai Tower") is a supertall skyscraper currently under construction in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. When it is completed in late 2008, it is predicted to be the tallest man-made structure in the world, as well as the tallest building by any measure. Scheduled for occupancy in September 2009, the building is part of a 2 km² (0.8 sq mi) development called 'Downtown Burj Dubai' and is located at the "First Interchange" (aka "Defence Roundabout") along Sheikh Zayed Road at Doha Street.
The building is being built mainly by a South Korean company Samsung, along with the Belgian company Besix and the UAE company Arabtec. It was designed by American Adrian Smith before he left Skidmore, Owings and Merrill LLP (SOM) of Chicago to start his own independent practice, Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture in October 2006. However, SOM continues to lead the architectural, structural engineering and mechanical engineering of Burj Dubai. The total budget for the Burj Dubai project is about $4.1 billion US and for the entire new 'Downtown Burj Dubai', $20 billion US.